母乳喂养的母亲: 哺乳期的照顾和歧视

  1. Am I protected from discrimination at my job because I am breastfeeding my baby or pumping at work?

    Yes. In California, discrimination because of breastfeeding or lactation is a form of sex-based discrimination and is prohibited by the Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA). It is illegal for an employer to discriminate on the basis of lactation with respect to hiring, firing, training, compensation, or virtually any other aspect of employment.

  2. Do laws prohibiting discrimination because of lactation apply to all employers?

    No. California’s sex (or lactation) discrimination laws apply only to workplaces with 5 or more employees, as well as all employment agencies, labor organizations, state licensing boards, and state and local governments.

  3. What steps should I take if I believe I have been discriminated against because of lactation?

    • Maintain a detailed record of all acts of discrimination with the names of all witnesses.
    • File a complaint with the Department of Fair Employment and Housing (no later than one year after the earliest discriminatory act).
    • Be sure to name as defendants all responsible parties. For example: the company, the harassing parties, your supervisor(s), etc.
    • Contact an attorney or the Work & Family Project helpline to discuss your legal options.
  4. Do I have the right to take break time to pump breast milk while I’m at work?

    Yes. California law requires employers to provide a reasonable amount of break time for lactating employees to express (pump) milk. Time used to express milk may be used at the same time as other breaks provided. However, employers must provide additional break time if needed, although the additional time may be unpaid. Employers are not required to provide additional breaks if additional break time would constitute a serious disruption to the employers’ operations.

    Similarly, federal requires that employers provide break time for nursing mothers who are not exempt employees under section 7 of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). Employees must be completely relieved of their duties during break time used to express milk or it must be compensated. If the employer has fewer than 50 total employees and providing break time would impose an undue hardship, then the employer may not be required to provide additional break time to lactating mothers.

    Each employee may require a different amount of time to pump breast milk or may require a different frequency of breaks. There is not a fixed amount of time or particular schedule that an employee is required to follow to have the right to take breaks to express or pump breast milk.

  5. Do I have the right to a private space in which I can pump breast milk at work?

    Yes. California law requires that employers make reasonable efforts to provide a private space, other than a bathroom, where breastfeeding mothers may express milk. Similarly, federal law requires that employers provide a space that is private, shielded from view, and free from intrusion for qualifying employees to pump breast milk.

  6. What should I do if I think my right to break time or a private space to pump breast milk has been violated?

    Employees can make a complaint to the California Division of Labor Standards Enforcement (DLSE), or, if they are covered by section 7 of the Fair Labor Standards Act, can file a complaint with the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL).

    If you have questions about your right to lactation accommodations at work, please visit our Work & Family Project or contact the helpline at (800) 880-8047.

禁止因为哺乳期而歧视的法律是否适用于所有的雇主?

  1. 我是否因为母乳喂养我的孩子或在上班的时候泵奶而得到保护而不受歧视?

    是的。在加州因为母乳喂养或者哺乳期而歧视是一种基于性别的歧视而受到《公平就业及住房法案》(FEHA)的禁止。雇主在雇用、开除、培训、报酬或雇佣工作的任何方面因为哺乳期而加以歧视都是违法的。
  2. 如果我认为我因为哺乳期而遭到了歧视我应当采取什么步骤?

    详细记录下来所有歧视的行为并保留所有证人的名字。 向公平就业及住房署提起投诉(不要晚于最初发生歧视行为的一年以后) 一定要将所有的有责任各方都列为被告。比如:公司、骚扰你的每个人、你的主管,等等。 与律师联系或致电工作及家庭专案帮助热线去讨论你有哪些法律选项。
  3. 我是否有权利在工作时利用休息时间去泵母乳?

    是的。加州法律要求雇主给哺乳的雇员合理的工间休息时间去挤(泵)奶。用来挤奶的工间休息时间可以与其他的休息时间相同。但是,如果有必要雇主必须提供额外的工间休息时间,尽管额外的时间可以是不付薪水的。如果额外的休息时间会对雇主的运营造成严重的干扰,雇主就不必提供额外的工间休息时间。 类似地,联邦法要求雇主为哺乳的母亲提供工间休息时间,如果雇员不是按照《公平劳工标准法案》(FLSA)第7章被豁免的员工的话。雇员用来挤奶的工间休息时间内必须完全解除雇员的责任,否则必须对其加以补偿。如果雇主的员工总数不到50人而提供工间休息会对雇主施加过分的困难的话,雇主就不必给哺乳的雇员提供额外的工间休息时间。 每个雇员可能会需要不同的时间来泵奶或者可能需要不同频率的工间休息。并没有固定的时间或特定的时间表要求雇主必须遵守才能满足雇员工间休息去挤或泵母乳的。
  4. 我是否有权利得到私密的空间以便我在工作时泵母乳?

    是的。加州法律要求雇主做出合理的努力去提供私密的空间,除洗手间之外,给母乳喂养的母亲用来挤奶。类似地,联邦法律要求雇主提供一个私密的、遮挡视线的并且没有人闯入的空间来给合资格的雇员用来泵奶。
  5. 如果我认为我用以泵奶的工间休息时间或私密空间的权利受到侵犯我应当做什么?

    雇员可以向加州劳工标注执行署 (DLSE) 提出投诉,或者如果公平劳工标准第7章适用于他们,可以向美国劳工部 (DOL) 提出投诉。 如果你对你工作中哺乳方便条件的权利有问题的话,请查看我们的工作及家庭专案(Work & Family Project)或者致电帮助热线(800) 880-8047。

Disclaimer

This Fact Sheet is intended to provide accurate, general information regarding legal rights relating to employment in California. Yet because laws and legal procedures are subject to frequent change and differing interpretations, the Legal Aid Society–Employment Law Center cannot ensure the information in this Fact Sheet is current nor be responsible for any use to which it is put. Do not rely on this information without consulting an attorney or the appropriate agency about your rights in your particular situation.